Up Quark Mass In Kg

Most of the mass of a common proton or neutron is the result of the strong force field energy; the individual quarks provide only about 1% of the mass of a proton. Nevertheless consider what the masses of the nucleons imply about the masses of the quarks. Nonrelativistic quark models use constituent quark masses, which are of order 350MeV for the u and d quarks. quarks changes to an up quark. Ever since the simple quark model was proposed extensive searches have been made for evidence of the existence of quarks as free particles. 67492729 x 10 -27 kg. to an up quark available energy to melt one kg. 5 MeV*c_unit^(-2) Variables: Particle Mass in kg. You can write a book review and share your experiences. M d = M u x M e M X1 = M X -1 x M X+1 Also: the mass of any consecutive quarks of the same type (up like or dn like) are related by the geometric. Protons and neutrons are made out of quarks, of two types; up quarks and down quarks. If the two-block system accelerates at 0. The Higgs sector of the electroweak theory is the least appealing part, and many theorists believe the nature might use a more elegant way to accomplish symmetry breaking and mass generation. The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol n or n0, with no net electric charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton. A force of 0. First, convert 0. So if you prefer it to be filled with lightweight stuffing, just choose that option at checkout and it will only weigh in at 3 oz. It is a positive integer an dimensionless (insteid o haein dimension o mass), acause it expresses a coont. 6749544x10-27 kg. 6726 x 10-27 kg Neutron 0 1. A neutron consists of two down quarks and one up quark, thus classifying it as a baryon. The actual mass of an atom at rest is often expressed in daltons (Da), also called the unified atomic mass unit (u). There are 1. 675*10 −27 kg. How are those units related to our everyday kilograms?. They predicted "The resulting top quark moves off relatively sluggishly on one side while the lighter bottom quark travels more rapidly in the opposite direction". Up quark: 4,530260 MeV at speed of proton 4,2 GeV Bottom quark Discussion 1. They are elementary particles ; Have no measurable size or structure ; Known leptons. Mass Of Neutron. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License; all unstructured text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. Device A can measure the length with an absolute uncertainty of 0. The up quark weighs approximately 2 mega electron volts (MeV), which is a unit of energy, the down quark weighs approximately 4. 4 × 1014 kg 951 Gaspra First image of an as-teroid from a. Baryons with the same quark composition differ in rest energy because this energy depends on the internal energy of the quarks \(\displaystyle (m=E/c^2)\). An atomic mass (symbol: m a) is the mass of a single atom of a chemical element. For individual protons and neutrons, most of their mass is a result of the internal binding energy between their quarks. While much more massive than an electron or the ghostly photon, this is still a tiny number. 6 x 10-15 m apart inside the neutron, what is the magnitude of the electrostatic force between them?. 79 x 10-27 kg). Learn fermi question facts with free interactive flashcards. When this happens, another particle called an antineutrino. What is the total quark mass of a proton in A) MeV? B) In kilograms? Problem 3 - From your answer to Problem 2, what is the mass difference between 1 proton and the combination of the two Up Quarks and one Down Quark in units of. Two up quarks and a down quark add up to a charge of 1e for a proton. Since it is composed of three quarks (one down/two up), protons are a type of baryon. One of the down quarks is converted to an up quark by the emission of a W boson… thus the quark changes flavor. Thus replacing an up quark by a down quark (which could mean changing a proton to a neutron), or even replacing a strange quark by a top quark, does not change any property of the strong interaction. Nevertheless consider what the masses of the nucleons imply about the masses of the quarks. Lepton Mass, MeV 0 De ned 0. There are two types of quarks in atoms, each having a fractional electric charge. 5 MeV, while the neutron mass minus the proton mass is about 1. 673×10^−27 kg. Mass Frequency Frequency is a rotation per second If ()f is set to one rotation per second (7. What we want is a method where numbers coming in from…. Now this post will contain foods to eat to gain weight. From now will quote particle masses in GeV/c2. quark masses pdf Masses in different schemes can be found in the Note on Quark Masses. And in addition, there is a neutrino. c) If a matter and an anti-matter collided they would annihilate each. Specific charge of the proton and the…. The kilogram (1 kg) is defined as exactly equal to the mass of this cylinder. L Strange Quark Up Quark Down Quark Hyper Nucleus Proton s quark mass ~100MeV. Most of the mass of a common proton or neutron is the result of the strong force field energy; the individual quarks provide only about 1% of the mass of a proton. It has exactly the same quark composition as a neutron, yet it is more massive than a neutron. Up quark = 2. Each of the generations are identical except for one thing – their mass. Looking up information on quarks will tell you that the up quark has a mass of 2. 0 × 1030 kg, and the mass of a hydrogen atom is 1. Quark-antiquark pairs are called mesons. Mesons – always contain 2 quarks ( a quark and an antiquark). substitution of the down-quark as a partition of a up-quark kernel surrounded by a Mesonic Inner Ring (MIR); the latter carrying integral negative charge for the d-quark's core+ring=+2/3-1=-1/3 overall fractional charge content. ) The new particle mass will allow scientists to test the mathematics of quantum connections among the top quark, the Higgs particle — the particle detected by the LHC in 2012, which explains how other particles get. 27 MeV/c 2, while the neutron is 1. 6 MeV of mass energy, while in the rho vector meson the same combination of quarks has a mass of 770 MeV! The masses of C and S are from Serway, and the T and B masses are from descriptions of the experiments in which they were discovered. They have maximum stability due to the lowest mass. You are correct that the mass of the Sun is steadily getting smaller as it emits light, but that if we were to keep track of the total energy of the light emitted, and add that to the current mass of the Sun, the result would be constant. Investigation of Fine-Tuning through the Variation of Fundamental Constants Amanda Steinhebel Physics Department, The College of Wooster, Wooster, Ohio 44691, USA (Dated: May 8, 2014) Multiverse and in ation theories occasionally require the use of fundamental constants with values that di er from what is measured in the observable universe. Quarks: A quark is one of the basic particles, having charges of ±⅔ e or ±⅓ e. An up quark is approximately 2. A neutron is a type of hadron. 24 grams and undergoes decay until it has a mass of 0. 5 MeV, while the neutron mass minus the proton mass is about 1. Charge on a neutron due to n up quarks Number of down quarks is 3 − n,each having a charge of. This happens via the. You cannot combine the three quark constituents of a proton without their binding. Neutrons are present in almost all atomic nuclei except for Hydrogen. 67 × 10^−27 kg The quark is a fundamental constituent of matter making up stable particles namely hadrons such as protons and neutrons. To convert to electron volts we divide by 1. Protons are each made of three quarks, two up quarks and a down quark. 63 × 10 –34 J. Up quark (mass, kg)-30. These drive systems do not depend on the emission of matter to create thrust but create a change in the curvature of space-time, in accordance with general relativity. They are deflected by electric and magnetic fields. To obtain the binding energy in units of joules, we must convert the mass defect from atomic mass units to kilograms. Basic Constants Up Quark Mass (in MeV/c^2) quark_u. [2 compare and contrast the up quark, the down quark, the electron and the electron neutrino, and antiparticles, in terms of charge and energy (mass-energy). Where do the Neutrons come from I understand that the process in the Sun combines two hydrogen atoms to form a Helium atom with a subsequent release of energy. For example when an energetic antineutrino of mass or energy of 1. How's that possible?. A neutron consists of 2 “down” quarks and 1 “up” quark. sin( θ ) = λ d. Charged pions are represented by the symbols π+ and π−. The anti-quark is the same type of particle, with the same mass, but with the opposite charge. consists of a (up, up, down) triplet, and a neutron is a (up, down, down) triplet. Each up quark has +2/3 C charge and each down quark has -1/3 C charge. The mass of a primordial black hole with an evaporation time equal to the current age of the universe (mass, kg) 11. We have to fill in mass in kg and drop height in m. 2 ln 1 + sin2 W 1 ˘=1 (11) n Obtained Lepton mass, MeV Exp. This unit is defined as a twelfth of the mass of a free neutral atom of carbon-12, which is approximately 1. Protons and neutrons are composed of quarks. The SI unit of mass is the kilogram (kg). 79 x 10-27 kg). PROTON/NEUTRON MASS IS 70 TIMES MORE THAN THE SUM OF THEIR CONSTITUENT QUARKS. 1 Mass A particle’s mass indicates how strongly it interacts via the gravitational force. Also, there are up quarks with (2/3)e charge and there are down quarks with (1/3)e-charge. A kg weighs about 2. The values of the other blanks in the form will be calculated after filling in these factors. 6726 x 10-27 kg Neutron 0 1. 060 kg moving at a speed of 1. Particle Anti-particle Name up quark Anti-up quark Symbol u u mass 7. An electron weighs (has a mass of) 9. It is harder to tell from the plot what the exact location of the peak is. The muon and strange quark have already been met, and, together with the muon neutrino and the heavier version of the u quark, the charm quark (c), form the second generation. The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles. Problem 2 - A proton consists of two Up Quarks and one Down Quark held tightly together by the strong nuclear force. Along with protons, neutrons make up the nucleus, held together by the strong force. Clear symmetry - origin of is an exact copy of. up and down quark masses, the rest come from the strong coupling force binding them together through the exchange of gluons. A particle containing a top quark would have a mass greater than this. two up quarks +2/3 e charge one ^down quark -1/3 e charge interact. This means that the value of (12) and (13) fits somewhere in the. The charged pions have a mass 273 times that of an Pion - definition of pion by The Free Dictionary. When one observes that the net momentum in a plane perpendicular to the beam direction before the collision is the same as the momentum after and that value is zero, we write: E 2 = (2m t) 2. The anti-quark is the same type of particle, with the same mass, but with the opposite charge. All baryons interact through the strong force. Please do not leave them in my mailbox. 6 the constituent pion mass formula, (6), is derived, but here generalizsed to include the quark running mass. Quark-antiquark pairs are called mesons. The mass of an atom at rest is often expressed in unified atomic mass units (u). A neutron also consists of 3 quarks , up down down (udd). A kg weighs about 2. Quantum chromo dynamics (QCD) estimates a range of 1. But they're made up of quarks, which have no mass. 0 m, the rotational inertia of this array about the y-axis is: A) 9. 67262178 × 10 -27 kg. 16 CHAPTER 2. (The up quark mass is hard to measure and its apparent value is shifted by subtle effects, so in fact it might be much smaller than 0. The down quark is represented by the major third (the next most common interval). ) The new particle mass will allow scientists to test the mathematics of quantum connections among the top quark, the Higgs particle — the particle detected by the LHC in 2012, which explains how other particles get. For decades, the Standard Model has been subjected to thorough experimental scrutiny and has survived several attacks. 6×10^−26 kg. The electron does not have enough energy to escape the pull of the positively charged nucleus (protons),. the protons,neutrons and electrons contain up or down quarks. Large quark nuggets are predicted to have formed and be stable 13, 14, 23, 24 with mass between 10 −8 kg and 10 20 kg 23 within a plausible but uncertain range of assumed parameters of QCD and. The values of the other blanks in the form will be calculated after filling in these factors. Fission energy neutron. It is intended to be a convenient site to access news and information about astronomy and space-related activities of interest to the community and the public. The mass of an electron is 1/1836 the mass of a proton. Particle Mass Electric Charge. How Nuclear Fusion Directly Affects The Earth’s Orbit. Table of Contents. 5) Down quarks have a mass of 4. to an up quark available energy to melt one kg. 8387 x 10-11 J/nucleus Top. E 2 - p 2 = (2m t) 2. The proton mass is in theory a function primarily of the up quark mass, the down quark mass and the strong force coupling constant, and secondarily the other quark masses and a few other physical constants. So one of the two d quarks (down quarks) of the neutron find the one d-bar quark (the down antiquark) of the antiproton, or the u quark (up quark) of the proton finds one of the two u-bar quarks (up antiquark) of the antiproton, and. Other readers will always be interested in your opinion of the books you've read. 6×10^−26 kg. (2) (b) The isotope is a positron emitter. (kg), is defined as the mass of a specific. 1 decade ago. When two up quarks and a down quark form a proton, or when two down quarks and an up quark form a neutron, the strong interaction has, largely, done its job, in much the same way, for example, that the electric interaction between a proton and an electron does its job by forming a hydrogen atom. Protons and neutrons, each with mass approximately one atomic mass unit, constitute the nucleus of an atom, and they are collectively referred to as nucleons. 8 MeV, and the strange quark weighs in at about 92 MeV 0 0 0 Jeffrey K. A proton and a neutron consist of three quarks each. Due to confinement, quark masses cannot be directly measured. The Mystery of Quark Mass The combination of up and down quarks to form protons and neutrons suggests that the u and d are of about equal mass: about 1/3 the mass of a nucleon. Fundamentally, particle mass is proportionate volume of (vacuum) energy at absolute density. 8 MeV interacts electromagnetically with a proton a neutron and a positron ( e +) are generated. The neutral pion π 0 is a combination of an up quark with an anti-up quark or a down quark with an anti-down quark. We also have a particle called a Lambda which is made from three quarks - one of which is Strange, and the Sigma, which also has one Strange quark. Rather than using the SI unit of. A neutron consists of two down quarks and one up quark, thus classifying it as a baryon. This is the charge per unit mass or the charge : mass ratio. 24/7 Wall St. The mass of a proton is 1. u is the rest mass of up quark, m d is the rest mass of down quark and sin W is the weak coupling angle. 4 meters from the batter's box to first base, overruns first base by 3. 36 x 10e -37 kg And a list of photon energy and masses from the rest of the electromagnetic spectrum starting with a gamma ray using E =hc/ wavelength/ c squared = mass, is as follows;. electron 9x10-31 kg -1. The up quark has charge = + 2 3 e. The unit for atomic mass is the atomic mass unit (u), where 1 u ⫽ 1. 94% of the atom's mass is in the nucleus. If a body mass is 100 kg on Earth, it will have the same mass on the moon even though gravity on the moon is much less than on Earth. Anti-matter particles are represented mathematically by the normal particle symbols with a bar above them (eg. How's that possible?. Naively, you’d think that the quarks would have to be around 300 MeV/c². 14/36 Earth mass 5. The mass of the electron is me = 9:109 382 6 (16) £10¡31 kg; or, with our typical precision, me … 9:11£10¡31 kg. The Mystery of Quark Mass The combination of up and down quarks to form protons and neutrons suggests that the u and d are of about equal mass: about 1/3 the mass of a nucleon. Explain, with reference to an exchange particle, how this force operates. Please do not leave them in my mailbox. (The up quark mass is hard to measure and its apparent value is shifted by subtle effects, so in fact it might be much smaller than 0. 67×10−27 kg. c) If a matter and an anti-matter collided they would annihilate each. The graph shows the A positive pion is a meson consisting of an up quark and an anti. During this process there is a conversion of a 1)kg•m/s 2)kg•m2/s 3)kg•m/s2 4)kg•m2/s2. 6929×10-27 kg (1,839 times the mass of the electron). u-bar, is an anti-up quark). PHY 3106, Fall 2017, Homework #4 due Tuesday, Oct. 3 minutes but it is stable if combined into a nucleus. It is released when N neutrons and Z protons fuse together to form a nucleus with the mass number A! The mass M of the nucleus is smaller than the mass of its proton and neutron constituents! E=m·c2. The energy released in the reaction is 3-53 x 10-8 J 3-52 x lo-8J 3. INTRODUCTION TO PARTICLE PHYSICS 2. kg 45 N 65° P. That's a few thousand times less than the mass of a single cell. You can write a book review and share your experiences. of the strange quark mass ms and of the average of the up and down quark masses mud = (mu + md)/2 are obtained from lattice simulations. The proton consists of two up quarks and one down quark (see Fig. 5 MeV, while the neutron mass minus the proton mass is about 1. 6726231 × 10-27 kg. 511 MeV/c 2. what is the mass of a neutron in kg? 1. An atomic mass (symbol: m a) is the mass of a single atom of a chemical element. up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a. The gram (10 −3 kg) is an SI derived unit of mass. There are six quarks and they are considered in terms of three pairs: up/down, charm/strange, and top/bottom. It has exactly the same quark composition as a neutron, yet it is more massive than a neutron. 005 GeV/c 2, far, far smaller than the 0. 0 kg and a = 1. 5 and 6 MeV A proton is composed of two Up quarks and one Down quark, whereas the neutron is composed of two Down quarks and one Up quark. We nd that the mass of the. 673×10^−27 kg. They are classified as leptons. Most of the mass of an atom is actually generated by the gluon field within the nucleus, and is far higher than the sum of the up quarks, down quarks. Dimensionless constants, cosmology, and other dark matters u Up quark mass vG u= 2 p 1: 2 1030 kg m planet Mass of habitable planet [5]. It was found that to account for cosmological observations, the masses of the first Kaluza-Klein modes (and thus the approximate size of the extra dimension) should be in the range 600-1200 GeV when the lightest Kaluza-Klein particle (LKP) corresponds to the hypercharge boson and in. The proton is a hadron. The SI unit of mass is the kilogram (kg). In their search for the top quark, physicists thought that another particle called the W might decay while stationary into one top and one bottom quark. This explains why the neutron and proton masses are slightly different and why the proton has a positive charge and the neutron is neutral. Two types of quarks, the so called 'up' quark (denoted by u) of charge (+2/3) e, and the 'down' quark (denoted by d) of charge (-1/3) e, together with electrons build up ordinary matter. The proton's mass is 1. 82g/lb) to maximize muscle recovery and build muscle. 8 MeV, and the strange quark weighs in at about 92 MeV 0 0 0 Jeffrey K. How much heavier is the down quark than the up quark in kilograms, if the the mass difference between the neutron and proton is due to the different total quark masses and the different electrostatic energy? To convert energy into mass and vice versa, use E = m c 2 E=mc^{2} E = m c 2. c) If a matter and an anti-matter collided they would annihilate each. The similarity in mass is explained by the isospin approximate-symmetry in particle physics (also see below). The problem is that charge and mass are independent of each other, particles with virtually the same mass (neutron vs. The jet begins its acceleration. This is the charge per unit mass or the charge : mass ratio. Nevertheless consider what the masses of the nucleons imply about the masses of the quarks. quarks changes to an up quark. 5 × 10–4 u Discovered by… in …. New theories called Superstrings, Twisters and M Theory are attempting to link relativity (especially gravity) and predict the properties of all the sub-atomic particles and the forces of nature. So previous post we learned about Calories and general idea on how to gain weight easily and build muscle. Electron rest mass = 0. 67262158 × 10−27 kg# It is a fermion, with J = 1/2 In more useful units: 938 MeV/c2, or just 938 MeV (use c = 1) If you invert the coordinates (r to −r) of its constituents, wave function stays the same; it has positive intrinsic (coordinate inversion) parity Its charge is +1. Electron Mass. And in addition, there is a neutrino. Charge of 1 Up quark + Charge of 2 Down quarks + Charge. Matter and Radiation. Pions are only about 15% of the mass of protons, so based on mass, you could get quite a bit of energy out of the conversion of protons and neutrons. where MeV is the mass of the up quark, MeV is the mass of the down quark, and MeV is the pion mass, and MeV is the pion decay constant. Charge on the proton = 2(⅔) +(-⅓) = 1. The UNIVERSE-IN-A-BOX 36-PIECE SET contains all the particles from the Standard Model plus four Theoreticals, two Nucleons, and 14 Antiparticles for a total of 36 particles, covering most of the known universe. 6929×10 −27 kg. 2), giving the correct charge for the proton, 1. 672 x 10 -27 Kg which is 1836 times heavier than the electron and the W ± the Z 0 bosons are respectively 86 and 97 times heavier than the proton. Mass / kg / never was, is not or will not be energy / Joule = Nm = kg m ^ 2 s ^. The Earth has a mass of 6e24 kg. Eduction of new boson as Higgs thereby remains ambiguous. Find (a) the acceleration of the system and (b) the tensions in the cord on the left and in the cord on the right. 2 × 10-14 m sin(22 ° ) nuclear diameter = 3. Simple English Chemistry x 10 to the power of -27 kg Over 99. 0 m longer 4)6. u-bar, is an anti-up quark). 5 How would the mass and weight of an object on 500. The total mass of the particles after the reaction is 391-478 x 10-27 kg. 8839E-30 kg. 94 MeV and down boson mass=4. The coulomb unit is derived from the. 228 ounce of quarks. Atomic weight average mass of all isotopes of an element. 6745E-30 to 5. Thus, differences in gluon source mass between the neutron and proton buffer the difference between the component quark masses Detailed analysis of momentum transfer in scattering experiments implies that the. They combined this with calculations from another group of the ratios of strange-quark mass to up-quark. 39 A particle is composed of one up quark and two down quarks. The table below gives the electric charge of the three lightest quarks in terms of e, the charge of the proton. The mass of the planet is A 142·4 × 10 kg B 1·2 × 1016 kg C 3·6 × 1025 kg D 1·6 × 1026 kg E 372·4 × 10 kg. The electron has a mass that is less than 1∕9 of the mass of the down quark. A neutrons mass is about 1837 times that of an electron. 8 × 10 -30 kg. Anti-matter has the same mass and spin but the opposite charge to matter. Up quarks are the lightest among all the quarks. 0 × 1030 kg, and the mass of a hydrogen atom is 1. In fact, a proton is composed of two up quarks with +2/3 e charge and one down quark with -1/3 e charge, for +e net charge: uud; while a neutron is composed of two down quarks and one up quark: udd. This distinction accounts for the difference in mass and charge between the two particles. A strong nuclear force sticks the quarks together. Variable List. Neutron is the composition of 1 up quark and 2 down quark and comes under the family of fermions. Nevertheless consider what the masses of the nucleons imply about the masses of the quarks. 28E-21, in MKS units. 0 m/s, and What is the de Broglie wavelength of (a) a bullet of mass 0. There are six quarks and they are considered in terms of three pairs: up/down, charm/strange, and top/bottom. Other readers will always be interested in your opinion of the books you've read. 6 n = u + d + d + gluons Electron e--1. 51100 {\rm\ MeV}/c^2, where c is the speed of light. 6*10-19 J; Proton number (Atomic number): Total number of protons in the nucleus of an atom ; Nucleon number (Mass number): Total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom ; Nuclide: A distinct kind of atom or nucleus characterised by a specific number of protons and neutrons. Use the terms: up, down, into the paper, out of the paper, left, right, no change in direction to describe the deflection of the particles in the magnetic field. Hi, I have been recently looking into a thought experiment of a theoretical material which is composed of negative charges (electrons) fused together (with r=0) and positive charges (up quarks) fused together (r=0) so that the magnetic field would equal infinity. 0 mters in 3. In the modi ed SUSY, the fermion and boson mass ratio can be tted in the following way. For understanding the mass a proton has a mass of about 1 GeV. 6 Photon γ 0 0 Carries the electromagnetic force and binds electrons to the nucleus Gluon g 0 0 Carries the strong force and binds quarks, protons, and neutrons. u Mesons – 2 quark combinations. But they're made up of quarks, which have no mass. He found that e/m for a beta particle is the same as for Thomson's electron, and therefore suggested that the beta particle is in fact an electron. If a body mass is 100 kg on Earth, it will have the same mass on the moon even though gravity on the moon is much less than on Earth. 510998910(13) 1 105. 3 × 10-20 kg m s-1. 673 10-27 Kg. In the model of quark quasiparticles, quarks are the consequence of the symmetry of various phases of hadron matter and of the quantum behavior of particles in their interactions. Looking it up in physics books, proton mass is 1836 times. Science, Chemistry & Atoms x 10 to the power of -27 kg Over 99. 2 × 10-14 m. 672 621 637(83) x 10 -27 kg, or 938. 11 x x x 11 19 J J J. In our earlier papers, suggested up quark mass is 4. 3 ev/c squared = 5. Similarly, electron is the combination of one up and two down quarks. Therefore the Proton becomes a Neutron via Beta plus decay. (The up quark mass is hard to measure and its apparent value is shifted by subtle effects, so in fact it might be much smaller than 0. By using this information we can see that a Neutron has a greater mass than a Proton. Clear symmetry - origin of is an exact copy of. Basic Constants Up Quark Mass (in MeV/c^2) quark_u. Recently a new dark matter candidate has been proposed as a consequence of universal compact extra dimensions. 67 x 10 -27 kg = 0. In fact, the quarks in a proton continuously fluctuate between these three combinations. 8 MeV interacts electromagnetically with a proton a neutron and a positron ( e +) are generated. 6583668(38) 2 1777. 5x10-30 kg +1. 673×10^−27 kg. 4 MeV/c 2, while the down quark has a mass of 4. It's also important to note the charge of an electron and a proton, while opposite, are equal in magnitude. However, the quark matter with some composition of strange s quarks, or of other different compositions is also possible. Consider an oil droplet of mass m and charge q. The mass of the axion is dependent upon several constraints.